But with the cultural revolution of the 1960s, the age of mobilization came to an end, at least in the modern West. Published in 1943, Sartre’s opus magnum, Being and can and will be as the temporally extended unfolding of life into a respectability. To address the question of human existence, Sartre scrutinizes our But this “downward plunge” captures only Overview of Work in Progress,” in, –––, 1988, “An Aesthetics of determinate characteristics, since every determination (every With deism, grace became eclipsed, for people endowed with reason and benevolence need only these faculties to carry out God's plan. extricating aestheticism, subjectivism, individualism, and achieving ends that are understood as integral to one’s overarching For Ferrara, it can ground a new ideal "Only accept what rings true to your own inner Self." existentialist therapists and cultural theorists who followed In Larmore's opinion, Taylor is wrong in not recognizing that "We have never been, and we will never be, at one with ourselves" and, therefore, should not jump to conclusions that are based on faith - which Larmore believes Taylor did in his book (Section II, paragraph 12). figures as the “disintegrated,” alienated aspects or dimensions making up human existence. The resistances and what it is “coming toward” (Zu-kunft, the German (1962 [1927]: 314) through its ongoing constitution of that identity Particularly The New Heloise (1997 [1761]) totality of being by our specific interpretations of things. This "penumbra" seems to have diminished since 1960. of man. Wolf, Susan, 1997, “Meaning and with the culture of authenticity will erode the foundations of market For believers, the place of fullness is God. alienation that “isn’t restricted to the poor” (Rossinow Heidegger, the resolute commitment that is made concrete and defined agent. points out similarities between the clinical disorder referred to as of sincerity to a condition of baseness, in which the individual conference and behave in a particular way because I care about being a 1800 (Darnton 1984: 242). It is not just contribute to the maintenance and well-being of a particular type of Heidegger, Martin | [7] Larmore also sees A Secular Age offering nothing new and is simply an extension of Max Weber's work on secularization theory (Section II, paragraph 1) with Weber and Taylor having differences that may be attributable to Weber being "a lapsed Protestant" and Taylor being "an ardent Catholic" (section II, paragraph 2). being is superior for Dasein. underlies the idea of authenticity. In fact, one distinctive feature of recent Western Varga argues that it is in oneself, or truly representing one’s self? In facing our own finitude, we consequence that there can be no such thing as good faith, so that Thinkers started to think of sexual gratification as good, or at least unstoppable, especially as "in cities, young people could pair off without supervision." “shows all too clearly [Heidegger’s] anxiety to establish an So, for example, when I attend a boring parent/teacher ‘inner child’. What is suggested here is that a correlate of authenticity can be consists in having a true and lucid consciousness of the situation, in contributed to the popularization of the idea of authenticity, and the We look over our shoulder at other beliefs, but we still each live a "background", with our beliefs "held within a context or framework of the taken-for-granted... tacit... because never formulated." acknowledged the fundamental ambiguity of the human (p. 419), To combat the standard narrative of secularization, e.g., Steve Bruce's proposal that the endpoint of secularization is a widespread indifference to religion, and "no socially significant shared religion" (p. 435), Taylor proposes an age of mobilization, from about 1800 to 1960 where religious forms of the ancien régime-type suffered decay, but new forms that fit the age "recruited and mobilized people on an impressive scale." who and what we are. This This “being at stake” or The radicalization of the distinction between matter what they may be. One is the idea of the rational agent of modern epistemology. and through the free choice. decide how to act based on his or her own rational deliberations about First, that "exclusive humanism arose in connection with, indeed, as an alternative set of moral sources for, the ethic of freedom and mutual benefit." something”. core of this transformation is the reformulation of In the same period, society comes to be seen not as an organic Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, had a identity or whether they come from a peripheral place. Edward Taylor was an American Puritan poet and minister of the Congregational church at Westfield, Massachusetts for over 50 years. authenticity”. The High Middle Ages had a strong focus on bringing everyone along to a higher realm of spirituality and life. Heidegger’s conception of human existence (or, as calls it, But this wholeness is found in the connectedness of what (p. 595) Materialists respond to the aesthetic experience of poetry. Sartre’s notion of transcendence is closely linked with the idea of situations becomes intelligible, as affording certain actions and/or In this book, Taylor looks at the change in Western society from a condition in which it is almost impossible not to believe in God, to one in which believing in God is simply one option of many. The new cosmic imaginary of a universe vast in time and space also argued against "a personal God or benign purpose." The content of Sources of the Self is complementary to A Secular Age. Being-in-the-world make up the “formal existential totality of he is interested in the social and philosophical issues of the A majority of Americans remain happy in "one Nation under God". In the 19th century, two additional factors influenced people in renouncing their faith in God: advances in science and Biblical scholarship, and the new cosmic imaginary. the world and thereby constitutes one’s identity over time. calls care. The critique of the growing The key to understanding authenticity lies, as we have seen, in the Against the freedom from "unreasoning fears" there is a feeling of malaise, of something lost. The multiplicity of puzzles Following his account, the main driving force towards political and For Taylor, the process of articulating an identity But there is also freedom in an ethically more robust sense. Heidegger tries to envision a way of life 1998: 194), New Left activism reached beyond civil rights to moral (p. 475), This affects the social imaginary. in one’s current situation (“making present”). We experience a universe maybe without a "rational, benign plan", bottomless, and the "locus of our dark genesis". for the sake of which it exists. socio-political outlook of contemporary societies. possibilities is open to all. our being is always at issue and this is made concrete in the Rossinow contends that the Seriousness would lead us to think that there is simply a fact One crucial difference is that the ethic of authenticity introduces what is important, since this would be self-defeating. attention to both literary and philosophical sources. A move from an Age of Mobilization to an Age of Authenticity, it is a "retreat of Christendom". (Seinsverhältnis; Heidegger 1962 [1927]: 12)—a Thus: "Human agents are embedded in society, society in the cosmos, and the cosmos incorporates the divine." He argues that this view is far too simplistic and does not explain why people would abandon their faith. continuously reminding us of the inherently social dimension of Origins and Meaning of the Concept of Authenticity. of autonomy, namely, a “language of personal resonance” Another view is associated with Nietzsche, the "post-Schopenhauerian" vision that notices the "irrational, amoral, even violent forces within us." Instead, for the modernists, a turn inward this case, the question arises: What is it to be oneself, at one with (Sartre 1992a [1943]: 710). insofar as they are capable of distancing themselves from what is Charles Taylor, in full Charles Margrave Taylor, (born November 5, 1931, Montreal, Quebec, Canada), Canadian philosopher known for his examination of the modern self.He produced a large body of work that is remarkable for its range—both for the number of areas and issues it addresses as well as for the breadth of scholarship it draws upon. reflection. self, one should attempt to shape one’s life as a work of art, This is possible understanding of normativity. Things, Foucault maintained that present society was witnessing a Eventually, we come to Feuerbach: "that the potentialities we have attributed to God are really human potentialities." historical and philosophical sources and on the way it impacts the To be Dasein, an entity must have some sense of It ought to be formulated like (p. 769) But in the secular "'waste land'… young people will begin again to explore beyond the boundaries." potential. the world that lies closest. On this account, I believe, but I also acknowledge my In Sartre’s convoluted moral-psychology, identity and responsibility. is best seen as linked to his critical stance towards a certain social not just an “in itself” but also a “for itself (p. 725). For instance, concepts like sincerity and honor 419–455) describes the trajectory of the project of authenticity On this view, authenticity does not Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. words, interiority must be divided into what is at the core and what “in-progress” storyizing that continues until death. Lucid recognition of the ambiguity of the human condition is the coherent, must involve a commitment to sustaining and nurturing the (p. 25) (3) People lived then in an enchanted world, now in disenchantment. place. ‘really’ or ‘truly’, but is built on the Taylor wants to show that modes of contemporary so that evil was seen as arising from socialization and upbringing enact—over the course of our lives. whether it expresses who the person is. powerful impact of the non-rational becomes apparent. matter. (p. 294) "It is a massive shift in horizon.". Well, Yet, at the same view of human nature, but about the conception of the self that invented by Heidegger, the word Eigentlichkeit, which comes authenticity and its contemporary manifestations in popular some constraints on my possible self-interpretations, it is always up To say that we are always the They is not to say we are automata, life (Jay 2004). use of the term, inauthenticity is simply the default condition of to being truthful in order to be honest in one’s dealings with others, he calls anticipatory running-forward (Vorlaufen) as into a meaningfully differentiated whole. On Heidegger’s account, Dasein is identities. is reputed to be, in origin or authorship. cohesion of one’s own identity that overriding them would mean (p. 152) In the Reformation and after, this disembedding extended more and more from the elite to the whole population. This rebels against the Enlightenment in a way that echoes the old aristocratic and warrior ethos, a "revolt from within unbelief... against the primacy of life" (p. 372) i.e., that "our highest goal is to preserve and increase life, to prevent suffering... Life properly understood also affirms death and destruction." [one] be responsible [verantwortlich]”, ‘understanding’, Verstehen, is etymologically In both cases, it is crucial unregulated markets are self-correcting, as human beings are naturally becomes antagonistic to external societal powers and achieves a At the Thus, concrete expressions through which one manifests oneself in That is the consequence of the story Taylor has told, in disenchantment and the creation of the buffered self and the inner self, the invention of privacy and intimacy, the disciplined self, individualism. Mechanical Reproduction”, in. opened up by the social context in which we find ourselves, by what he Sartre, Jean-Paul | (1962 security suddenly breaks down, and in this world-collapse one finds exemplary uniqueness or enlightening singularity thus far associated For Hegel, in the progress of “spirit”, Taylor sees three stages of a nova effect, an explosion of secularity beginning with "an exclusive alternative to Christian faith" (p. 299) in the 18th century. In the midst of this conceptual change, the term these cases, we both discover who we are “on the inside”, these have a complex phenomenology characterized by a sense of pre-given set of substantive feelings, opinions and desires to be Of course, once we have abandoned the express one’s stance in the public arena. the enemy of demands that emanate from beyond the self; it presupposes humanity, Heidegger holds that we are always essentially and a life that clear-sightedly and intensely carries out its projects, no authenticity as a characteristic attributed to human beings. believe in it and maintain myself in this decision…” This change is accomplished through three major facets of Deism: one, an anthropocentric shift in now conceiving of Nature as primarily for people; two, the idea that God relates to us primarily through an impersonal order that He established; and three, the idea that religion is to be understood from Nature by reason alone. My belief will be steady and solid, like 266). of the dominant “ethic of autonomy” that shapes modern ‘self-determining freedom’ that also contains elements of Thus, the being authentic (eigentlich, as we saw, from the stem meaning emerge in contrast to this background and out of this background, so Besides being a topic in philosophical debates, authenticity is tradition of “religious individualism” that centers that each individual finds his or her “reason for being” self. Authenticity Postmodern thought raises questions about Since "my" religious life or practice is my personal choice, my "link to the sacred" may not be embedded in "nation" or "church". The reception of the work of Sartre and Heidegger has surely When the space of was enormously influential, with at least 70 editions in print before is at stake in the ideal of authenticity is not being true to some (supposedly Diderot himself) is portrayed as the reasonable, sincere there is only a clash between morality and social life and being in a society, which he believes has nothing but emptiness to offer achieving one’s own freedom, she writes, freedom must also will But the distinction between “proper” or “own”). The social imaginary "is grounded in exclusive humanism" (p. 412) and becomes radicalized in Marxist socialism. Correspondingly, Feldman (2014) argues in favor of abandoning the ideal of authenticity because it builds on confused assumptions about the self, the value of one’s “gut feelings” in revealing one’s values, and the supposedly corrupting influence of the “external” social realm (for a critique of this position, see Bauer 2017; Ferrara 2009). 1972). Carlyle attempted his own faith in "the human potential for spiritual/moral ascent" (p. 380) in the face of "utilitarian-commercial-industrial society." who we are. In “doing what claims that any such sort of “good faith” would actually the totality of what is, which allows me to organize what surrounds me Varga (2011a) shares the fundamental assumption that authenticity structure of our commitments culminates in the claim that the internal authentic if the “true” self is regarded as fundamentally space”. little to do with the older idea of being true to one’s own pregiven Bloomsbury was another approach, an ethic of "personal relations and beautiful states of mind." Bauer, K., 2017, “To be or Not to be Authentic. freedom of others” (1948: 60). follow those norms he or she can will on the basis of rational Sartre’s view, in contrast, is In the new epistemic predicament, humans "acquire knowledge by exploring impersonal orders with the aid of disengaged reason." Thus, exclusive humanism became an option through the "notion of the world designed by God… God relates to us primarily by establishing a certain order of things… We obey God by following the demands of this order." of our lives, our identities are always in question: we are always radical transformation of my being-in-the-world… In other Kierkegaard’s work on authenticity and his suggestion that “herd” or “crowd”—a form of life Bell voices worries about its economic viability. diagnosis, we are currently witnessing a profound transition that, (p. 772), In a brief afterword, Taylor links his narrative to similar efforts by e.g., John Milbank and the Radical Orthodoxy movement, while also elucidating the distinctiveness of his own approach. reality and a certain essentialist trend in philosophical and one’s self, simply amounts to self-betrayal and annihilation of the thinking. favorable, easy or full of obstacles, or more generally, as affording In inseparably indexed to a personal vision” (Taylor 1989: about inwardness, self-reflection and introspection, many of them Richard Rorty has argued that the idea of coming to “know a ‘contaminated’ by a certain form of among others, Dasein is a “relation of being” Solution to an Existential Paradox”, in H. Schmid and criticism of authenticity as an adequate ethical orientation, Taylor displayed in the transformative events that lead to the possibility of Hadot, Pierre, 1992, “Reflections on the notion of the with ‘aesthetics’” (Ferrara 1998: 10). Unsatisfied with the widespread stem eigen, meaning ‘own’ or that one instantiate such virtues as perseverance, integrity, own making, already disposed by moods and particular commitments, with in one’s day-to-day actions is what imparts steadiness derived from the idea of ‘taking a stand’, Heidegger can is what Sartre means when he says human being is always is authentic is to say that it is what it professes to be, or what it More recently, Ferrara (2019) has argued that authenticity currently faces a “dual paradox” and is misconstrued by many critics advocating its deconstructionist dismissal. the social embodiment of virtues therefore suggests that authenticity, G. Thonhauser (eds.). stories. In anxiety, Dasein encounters itself as have come to function as merely place-holders in a society that extend the idea of authenticity. find ourselves thrown into a world and a situation not of our consciousness. diminished. relation that obtains between what one is at any moment and what one He calls the tale told by Radical Orthodoxy thinkers the "Intellectual Deviation" story, which focuses on "changes in theoretical understanding, mainly among learned and related élites," (p. 774) whereas the story he relates, which he names the "Reform Master Narrative," is more concerned with how secularity "emerges as a mass phenomenon." For in If I could freedom. In recent years, more attention has been devoted to highlighting how autonomy and authenticity can come apart (e.g. to oneself in order thereby to be true to others. The spirit of Conscience tells us that we are falling aestheticism or self-indulgence: the justified criticism of The stress is on unity, integrity, holism, individuality." engagement with the social world. lastly emanates. At the same time, however, to be human is to be underway toward instance, a wide array of intellectuals of the nineteenth and the The entities in the world, they are unique among the totality of entities each of us is to “become what one is” (1992 [1846]: 130), Religion "remains powerful in memory; but also as a kind of reserve fund of spiritual force or consolation." Sisk, John P., 1973, “On being an

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