September 1946", "Europe: How The Marshall Plan Took Western Europe From Ruins To Union", "A peaceful Europe – the beginnings of cooperation", "Discover the former Presidents: The Rey Commission", "1980–1989 The changing face of Europe – the fall of the Berlin Wall", "European Parliament announces new President and Foreign Affairs Minister", "Nobel Committee Awards Peace Prize to E.U", "Croatia: From isolation to EU membership", "Britain Votes to Leave E.U., Stunning the World", "At the Stroke of Brexit, Britain Steps, Guardedly, Into a New Dawn", "Population on 1st January by age, sex and type of projection", "Share of world population, 1960, 2015 and 2060 (%)", "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency", "6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad", "Migration and migrant population statistics",, "Population on 1 January by broad age group, sex and metropolitan regions - Eurostat", "Despite Brexit, English Remains The EU's Most Spoken Language By Far", "Europeans and Their Languages, 2012 Report", "Council Regulation (EC) No 1791/2006 of 20 November 2006", "Languages in Europe – Official EU Languages", "Appendix 5: Written Evidence of Advocate General Sharpston", "Translation Adds Complexity to European Central Bank's Supervisory Role: ECB Wants Communication in English, But EU Rules Allow Use of Any Official Language", "The Application of multilingualism in the European Union Context", "European Parliament Fact Sheets: 4.16.3. Johnson, S.P. Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas, as they travel internally. United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year 2000, having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils. (Irish version pictured), A European vehicle registration plate, consisting of a blue strip on the left side with the EU flag symbol, along with the country code of the member state in which the vehicle is registered. The Union State,[a] also referred to as the Union State of Russia and Belarus,[b] is an international organization consisting of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. EU-Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, EU and Kyrgyz Republic Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, monetary policy for the Member States whose currency is the, the conservation of marine biological resources under the, social policy, for the aspects defined in this Treaty, economic, social and territorial cohesion, common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty, development cooperation, humanitarian aid, the coordination of economic, employment and social policies, the protection and improvement of human health, 2020: Spanish health workers on the front line against, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 04:20. The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy, the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's ninth symphony. [157], In the 2010 budget of €141.5 billion, the largest single expenditure item is "cohesion & competitiveness" with around 45% of the total budget. [269] A European Directive about Minimum Wage has also been discussed[270]. Früher hieß der Ort Brownsville. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries. Signing the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership. However, the most visible and arguably important official in the Union has been the State Secretary, who runs the Union State's day-to-day operations. [259], The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. ), Frankfurt Rhine-Main (Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Mainz et al. In 1992, having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union. In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. [229], The European Union has concluded free trade agreements (FTAs)[230] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others. [195] The CFSP requires unanimity among the member states on the appropriate policy to follow on any particular issue. It maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. [250] Around 46% of the energy consumed was produced within the member states while 54% was imported. Federalism and European union: The building of Europe, 1950–2000. [135] Generally speaking, they can be classified into two groups: those which come into force without the necessity for national implementation measures (regulations) and those which specifically require national implementation measures (directives).[136]. [118] The countries where the fewest people reported a religious belief were Estonia (16%) and the Czech Republic (19%). Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures,[v] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions. [r], The direct effect and supremacy doctrines were not explicitly set out in the European Treaties but were developed by the Court of Justice itself over the 1960s, apparently under the influence of its then most influential judge, Frenchman Robert Lecourt[171]. Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy. Consists of 705 directly elected representatives. According to State Secretary Borodin, five variants of this Act were discussed at the meeting, each of which would involve a 7 to 10 year transitional period in the Union's development. The population of the UK is roughly 0.9% of the world's population. [7][8], The Treaty on the Creation of a Union State of Russia and Belarus was signed on 8 December 1999. In 1987 the European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. Demographic transition to a society of aging population, low fertility-rates and depopulation of non-metropolitan regions is tackled within this policies. Competence in scrutinising and amending legislation is shared between the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, while executive tasks are performed by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council (not to be confused with the aforementioned Council of the European Union). Projects under TEN include the Channel Tunnel, LGV Est, the Fréjus Rail Tunnel, the Öresund Bridge, the Brenner Base Tunnel and the Strait of Messina Bridge. Each state has one vote in the Council, meaning effectively that all decisions must be unanimous. The date marks the anniversary of the Schuman Declaration of 1950, considered to be the first official step in the creation of what is now the European Union. [58] These men and others are officially credited as the founding fathers of the European Union. [q] The EU has legal personality, with the right to sign agreements and international treaties. [2] Similarly, the Court of Justice of the European Union uses French as the working language,[99] while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English. The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate (North-Western Europe and Central Europe), a Mediterranean climate (Southern Europe), or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate (Northern Balkans and Central Europe). Gründung der Schweizerischen Union für Labormedizin vor 25 Jahren. [324] According to a 2019 study of the member states who joined from 1973 to 2004, "without European integration, per capita incomes would have been, on average, approximately 10% lower in the first ten years after joining the EU. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond. Due to its global influence, the European Union has been described by some scholars as an emerging superpower.[24][25][26]. The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland disagreed. For the bank, see, • Treaty on the Creation of a Union State of Russia and Belarus, Zulys, Audrius. It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states. [58], The EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC and they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. As such, the Union State most resembles a supranational confederation on the order of the African Union, or the Union of South American Nations. The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. [216] The 'geographic' instruments provide aid through the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI, €16.9 billion, 2007–2013), which must spend 95% of its budget on official development assistance (ODA), and from the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which contains some relevant programmes. [15] Furthermore, the military doctrine of the Russian Federation provides that "an armed attack on the state-participant in the Union State, as well as all other actions involving the use of military force against it," should be deemed "an act of aggression against the Union State", authorizing Moscow to "take measures in response". Der heutige Markenname war geboren. Schmitter, Comparative Politics: Its Past, Present and Future (2016), 1 Chinese Political Science Review, 397, at 410, "European Union is the most complex polity in the world". This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states.[244]. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity (without precedent or comparison).[17][18]. (German version pictured), A European driving licence card (Croatian version pictured), A European passport, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language(s). [57] European leaders Alcide De Gasperi from Italy, Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman from France, and Paul-Henri Spaak from Belgium understood that coal and steel were the two industries essential for waging war, and believed that by tying their national industries together, future war between their nations became much less likely. In 2007, member states agreed that, in the future, 20% of the energy used across the EU must be renewable, and carbon dioxide emissions have to be lower in 2020 by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels. ), the Flemish Diamond (Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven, Ghent et al.) La Unión ist eine spanische Stadt in der autonomen Gemeinschaft Murcia. The European Commission working sectors are: Aeronautics, automotive, biotechnology, chemicals, construction, cosmetics, defense, electronics, firearms, food and drink, gambling, healthcare, maritime, mechanics, medical, postal, raw materials, space, textile, tourism, toys and Social economy (Societas cooperativa Europaea). Von Knight libyschen >> Es ist kein Zufall, dass Befehlshaber in Afrika, wo es war die Gründung der Afrikanischen Union für die Große << angekündigt zitiert Post date: 24.Eki.2014 12:54:58 Afrika, dass der Kontinent, der von der westlichen Kolonialismus, die … [5], Nevertheless, the nature of the political entity remained vague. In all cases, they are modifications to the flag of the Soviet Union, but representing the state (not communism). [111], The EU has no formal connection to any religion. A Supreme State Council, the highest authority in the Union State, made up of the Presidents, Prime Ministers and the heads of both chambers of the Parliaments of both countries. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories: The EU is based on a series of treaties. The new plan was expected to provide the European Union with greater flexibility to target and sanction those responsible for serious human rights violations and abuses around the world.[181]. [100][101], Even though language policy is the responsibility of member states, EU institutions promote multilingualism among its citizens. [307], The flag used is the Flag of Europe, which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. [210], Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO". Dieser wurde 1984 vom Europäischen Parlament angenommen und beeinflusste die Gestaltung der EU-Verträge in den 1980er und 1990er Jahren. (Slovak version pictured). "[48] During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. CDU und Konservativismus in Deutschland: Gespenster der CDU. These legislative instruments are dealt with in more detail. Die Union pour la Nouvelle République (UNR) war eine französische Partei in der Zeit von 1958 bis 1967.In ihr und ihren Nachfolgeparteien Union des Démocrates pour la V e République (UD-V e; 1967–1968) und Union des démocrates pour la République (UDR; 1968–1976) organisierte sich der politische Gaullismus der Fünften Französischen Republik von ihrer Gründung bis 1976. It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In 2002, the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states. [216] The EU's external action financing is divided into 'geographic' instruments and 'thematic' instruments. The United Kingdom became the first member state to leave the EU[20] on 31 January 2020. Possessing the EU's largest armed forces and the largest national defence budget of the bloc,[208] France is also the only EU country that has power projection capabilities outside of Europe. [245] According to the Treaty the provision of services is a residual freedom that only applies if no other freedom is being exercised. The song, which was modified from the National Anthem of the Soviet Union, refers to a wider union of the two nations.[20]. This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies. Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. La Unión wurde 1604 gegründet und entstand um eine Hacienda herum. European Union - Official website of the European Union. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme,[277] which recognises that its objectives can only be achieved if key international agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at EU level and worldwide. Erfahren Sie mehr These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation[p] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants. 16–22). and Upper Silesian area (Katowice, Ostrava et al.). ), Randstad (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht et al. [247] The ECB is the central bank for the eurozone, and thus controls monetary policy in that area with an agenda to maintain price stability. He was first appointed by the Supreme State Council on 26 January 2000 for a four-year term. [200]:762 This influence on the internal affairs of other countries is generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power". [158] "Administration" accounts for around 6%. EU development action is based on the European Consensus on Development, which was endorsed on 20 December 2005 by EU Member States, the council, the European Parliament and the commission. The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states. Trade marks - video description. When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member state government. [201], Switzerland was called to vote on whether to end the agreement with European Union on the free movement of people, in September 2020. A proposed Court of the Union, consisting of nine judges appointed for six-year terms. [15] Passport controls have been abolished for travel within the Schengen Area. [83] For comparison, the EU-28 birth rate had stood at 10.6 in 2000, 12.8 in 1985 and 16.3 in 1970. [104], A total of twenty official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family, represented by the Balto-Slavic,[i] the Italic,[j] the Germanic,[k] the Hellenic,[l] and the Celtic[m] branches. A European Union trade mark is valid in all European Union Member States. The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. [169] These are power-giving treaties which set broad policy goals and establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement those goals. [153], In the ordinary legislative procedure, the European Commission proposes legislation, which requires the joint approval of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union to pass. [213] Frontex is an agency of the EU established to manage the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders. The 27 Commissioners as a single body are subject to approval (or otherwise) by vote of the European Parliament. [176], The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities ... in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail. Die Stadt ist die Countyverwaltung des Union County. ", "Проект герба Союза России и Белоруссии (2002 г. We turn your underbrush and trees into mulch, then evenly spread it around across the ground to reduce erosion. EU member states own the estimated second largest after the United States (US$105 trillion) net wealth in the world, equal to around 20% (~€60 trillion) of the US$360 trillion (~€300 trillion)[232] global wealth. In 1957, when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. .eu is representative of the whole of the EU; member states also have their own TLDs. [262], The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction. That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (currently Josep Borrell) also takes part in its meetings. [ad], The Competition Commissioner, currently Margrethe Vestager, is one of the most powerful positions in the commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations. [66] In 1985, the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty—whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand—came into force on 1 November 1993. [320][321] ARTE is a public Franco-German TV network that promotes programming in the areas of culture and the arts. [78] A referendum in the UK on its membership of the European Union was held in 2016, with 51.9% of participants voting to leave. The European Constitution in the Making. The Court of Justice primarily deals with cases taken by member states, the institutions, and cases referred to it by the courts of member states. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels. In its first 20 years, it supported international exchange opportunities for well over 1.5 million university and college students and became a symbol of European student life.[284]. The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in 1969. [19], A song called "Sovereign Union of Nations" (Russian: Державный союз народов Derzhavny soyuz narodov, Belarusian: Дзяржаўны саюз народаў Dzyarzhauny sayuz narodau) has been proposed as the Union's unofficial anthem. The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU)—the principal framework for this unification. The EU is independent from the Council of Europe, although they share purpose and ideas, especially on the rule of law, human rights and democracy. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel. Centre for European Policy Studies. On 15 December 2006, talks over the Union State were heating up. [116] The other world religions of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sikhism are also represented in the EU population. [4], Eurostat's Eurobarometer opinion polls showed in 2005 that 52% of EU citizens believed in a god, 27% in "some sort of spirit or life force", and 18% had no form of belief. [77], From the beginning of the 2010s, the cohesion of the European Union has been tested by several issues, including a debt crisis in some of the Eurozone countries, increasing migration from Africa and Asia, and the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU. [117], Through successive enlargements, the European Union has grown from the six founding states (Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) to the current 27. International recognition of sustainable development as a key element is growing steadily. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in 1987. European Union website - EUROPA is the official EU website that provides access to information published by all EU institutions, agencies and bodies. A European identity card, to be issued starting from 2 August 2021. The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. Institute for European Environmental Policy (2012) Manual of European Environmental Policy, Earthscan, London. Cities are largely spread out across the EU with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October 2005, and the first draft policy was published in January 2007. Egal ob in den Nachrichten oder in der Schule, sie begegnet uns ständig - die EU. The landscape, climate, and economy of the EU are influenced by its coastline, which is 65,993 kilometres (41,006 mi) long. During a press-conference in Minsk on 2 February 2006, Pyotr Prokopovich, chief of the National Bank of Belarus, announced that a "common currency might be introduced in 2007". Belarus and Russia had been collecting a value added tax (VAT), meant to finance the Union State, in the country of origin, but from 1 January 2005, VAT is collected in the country of destination, as in most other independent countries of the world. It raised great hopes of further European integration, and there were fevered debates in the two years that followed as to how this could be achieved. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme, a university exchange programme which began in 1987. [5] Several further agreements were signed on 25 December 1998, with the intention of providing greater political, economic and social integration. Maastrichter Vertrag zur Gründung der Europäischen Union 15 Jahre in Kraft. [6] According to some observers, Lukashenko's intention was also to gain great power, becoming the president of a future Russia-Belarus federation after Yeltsin's demise due to his all-time low popularity. The budget may still be approved if Hungary and Poland withdraw their vetos after further negotiations in the Council and the European Council. La Grande (Oregon) La Grande ist eine Kleinstadt im Union County, Oregon, USA. Der heutige Name lässt sich auf Charles Dause zurückführen, der die Schönheit der Gegend oft mit dem Begriff La Grande umschrieb. Portmán diente weiterhin als Bergbauhafen. La Grande ist eine Kleinstadt im Union County, Oregon, USA.Die Stadt ist die Countyverwaltung des Union County. The EU's member states cover an area of 4,233,262 square kilometres (1,634,472 sq mi). The Council focused primarily on values—human rights and democracy—rather than on economic or trade issues, and was always envisaged as a forum where sovereign governments could choose to work together, with no supra-national authority. The Court of the Union was never established. To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. [267] Among the member states, the lowest unemployment rates were recorded in the Czech Republic (2.3%), Germany and Poland (both 3.4%), and the highest in Spain (14.9%) and Greece (19.0 in July 2018).[267]. [e] This political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii ("restoration of the empire"),[29] either in the forms of the Reichsidee ("imperial idea")[30] or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum ("christian empire"). [182], The European Ombudsman was established by the Maastricht Treaty. [18], A proposed coat of arms is a modification of the double-headed eagle holding the coats of arms of Russia and Belarus. Treaty of Rome) est amplius duorum foederum (quae etiam Foedera Romae icta dicuntur) die 25 Martii anno 1957 Romae ictorum, cui tunc nomen Foedus Communitatis economicae Europaeae instituendae datum est et quod hodie nomen Foedus de operatione Unionis Europaeae fert (cum alium Foedus Communitatis … [63], In 1973, the Communities were enlarged to include Denmark (including Greenland, which later left the Communities in 1985, following a dispute over fishing rights), Ireland, and the United Kingdom. Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review, 2005, p. 149, Asadova, Nargiz. There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training, and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013. Die Union pour la Nouvelle République (UNR) war eine französische Partei in der Zeit von 1958 bis 1967.In ihr und ihren Nachfolgeparteien Union des Démocrates pour la V e République (UD-V e; 1967–1968) und Union des démocrates pour la République (UDR; 1968–1976) organisierte sich der politische Gaullismus der Fünften Französischen Republik von ihrer Gründung bis 1976. [23] Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the union has developed a role in external relations and defence. In the pre-2004 EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. The EU budget is scrutinised by the European Court of Auditors. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union, or more closely integrated with the European Union.